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immune respose image
Antibody Response
cellular immune response
Cellular Immune Response
inflammation image
Inflammatory Response
immune respose image
Antibody Response
cytotoxic response
Cellular Immune Response
cytotoxic response
Cellular Immune Response
antibody mediated immune response on black background
Antibody Response
antibody mediated immune response on black background
Antibody Response
macrophage phagocytosing bacteria
Macrophage phagocytosing bacteria
Killer Cell attacking target cell
Killer Cell attacking target cell
Lymphocytes
Lymphocytes
T-Cell B-Cell communication
T-Cell B-Cell communication

IMMUNOLOGICAL IMAGES: these graphics illustrate various aspects of the immune system. The immune system is a complex of cells and molecules that are orchestrated to provide immunity against infection and other alien entities (e.g. cancer cells and toxins).

IMMUNOLOGY: is the study or science of immunity. Traced back to the first smallpox vaccination (Edward Jenner). A person who studies immunology is called an immunologist.

IMMUNE SYSTEM: There are recognised divisions of labour in the immune system but there is so much cross over in activity and function that it is difficult to separate the different aspects of immune function into neat categories. One important division is between specific immunity and non-specific immunity.

IMMUNIZATION & VACCINATION: Vaccines rely on the immune system to fight disease. A vaccine primes the immune system by exposing the body to antigens present on the infecting agent. The immune system then responds more quickly and more powerfully when exposed to the relevant pathogen.

BIRD FLU VACCINE: scientists are trying to create vaccines to fight a potential bird flu pandemic. Influenza vaccines have to be regularly updated because the influenza virus constantly changes its surface antigens. The flu virus is a moving target, antigenically speaking, and so vaccine manufacture lags viral innovation. The problem with vaccinating against a flu pandemic is that we do not know what the new pandemic influenza strain will be like. Avian influenza vaccines might not work against a novel pandemic viral strain. There is a race on to develop vaccines very fast and one option is DNA vaccines.






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